November 30, 2022

Women are masters of survival. They tolerate extremely harsh conditions better

According to a study by Danish scientists, women are the stronger sex. At least when it comes to survival in the most extreme life-threatening conditions, such as famine, epidemics or slavery.

Women live longer than men in almost every country in the world. This is supported by life expectancy data. What is the advantage of women? Some re studies focus on its biological origin, others emphasize the importance of the factor in social, and Danish researchers have focused on The differences in life expectancy in populations exposed to the head d, epidemics, and slavery. The results of their study seem to support the view that the female advantage is modulated by a complex interaction of biological factors in environmental and social.

Researchers from the University of Southern Denmark por nali data on male and female mortality during several tragic periods in history. Seven historical events were analyzed: The Great Fam d in Ukraine in 1932-1933, the Great Hunger d in Ireland between 1845 and 1849, the life expectancy of slaves In Trinidad in 1813, the Swedish famine of 1772-1773, the survival rate of freed slaves in from the US, which ho settled in Liberia, and measles epidemics in Iceland in 1842 and 1882.

Researchers analyzed birth and death data , to determine which ra sex were able to survive a longer period of time. In each of the cases mentioned above (with the exception of the slave population in Trinidad) women were able to survive longer than men, even when conditions were just as dramatic. The results of the study were published in „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”.

Conditions under which rych zar no men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk, were hitherto undiscovered sources of dles of information. According to the study, the Danish , women endured extremely harsh conditions better than men. The lower mortality rate for women applied to all age groups, from The differences in mortality rates among d infants.

R Differences in infant mortality rates contributed most to the a gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme hazards better than boys.

„The conditions people faced in the situations we analyzed were appalling. Even as they caused a significant decrease in life expectancy og arc of the population, it was women who fared better than men in terms of life expectancy” – pointed out in the paper by scientists.

The exception is the population of slaves in Trinidad in 1813. According to scholars, this may be because men were sold more expensively than women, which may have accounted for the better conditions when a planter intended to sell a slave further. According to birth and death records , life expectancy was 15-19 years for men and 13-20 years for women.

In 1820, some American slaves were freed and were allowed to settle in Liberia. About 43 percent of. of them died in the first year. Life expectancy after returning to Africa was 1.68 years for men and 2.23 years for women.

During the protozoan-induced famine in Ireland Phytophthora infestans, kt ry led to massive losses of potato crops , about p one and a half million wasps b. Life expectancy has shrunk from 38 years for both sexes to 18.7 years for men and 22.4 years for women.

In Ukraine in 1932-1933, the forced collectivization of agriculture and the ruthless enforcement of mandatory and unpaid quotas delivery product in agricultural crops led to starvation deaths of 6 to 10 million in os b. The average survival rate during this period was 7.3 years for men and nearly 11 years for women.

During the measles epidemic in Iceland, life expectancy for men was less than 18 years. Women lived a year longer. Difficult to calculate is the fact that many os b died as a result of complications from the disease.

During Sweden’s last great famine in 1771., inclement weather caused widespread agricultural losses, and life expectancy dropped to 17 years for men and nearly 19 years for women.